FREE JAMB 2019/20 Syllabus for Chemistry – [UPDATED]

Electrolysis

 

 

(a) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.

Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.

(b) (i) Electrolysis of dilute H2SO4, aqueous

CuSO4, CuC12 solution, dilute and concentrated NaC1 solutions and fused NaC1

 

 

(ii) Factors affecting discharge of ions at the electrodes.

(c) Uses of electrolysis:

Purification of metals e.g. copper and

production of elements and compounds

(Al, Na, O2, Cl2 and NaOH).

(d) Electrochemical cells:

Redox series (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au,)

half-cell reactions and electrode potentials. (Simple calculations only).

(e) Corrosion as an electrolytic process,

cathodic protection of metals,

painting, electroplating and coating

with grease or oil as ways of

preventing iron from corrosion.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between electrolytes and non-

electrolytes;

(ii) perform calculations based on faraday as a

mole of electrons.

(iii) identify suitable electrodes for different

electrolytes.

(iv) specify the chemical reactions at the

electrodes;

(v) determine the products at the electrodes;

(vi) identify the factors that affect the products

of electrolysis;

(vii) specify the different areas of application of

electrolysis;

(viii) identify the various electrochemical cells;

(ix) calculate electrode potentials using half-

 

cell reaction equations;

(x) determine the different areas of

application of electrolytic processes;

(xi) identify methods used in protecting metals.

 

Energy changes

(a) Energy changes(\(\Delta\)H) accompanying physical

and chemical changes:

dissolution of substances in/or

reaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH,

K, NH4Cl. Endothermic (+\(\Delta\)H) and exothermic (-\(\Delta\)H) reactions.

(b) Entropy as an order-disorder

phenomenon: simple illustrations

like mixing of gases and dissolution

of salts.

(c) Spontaneity of reactions:

\(\Delta\)G\(^\theta\) = 0 as a criterion for equilibrium, \(\Delta\)G

greater or less than zero as a criterion for

non-spontaneity or spontaneity respectively.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) determine the types of heat changes

(\(\Delta\)H) in physical and chemical processes;

(ii) interpret graphical representations of heat

changes;

(iii) relate the physical state of a substance

to the degree of orderliness;

(iv) determine the conditions for spontaneity

of a reaction ;

(v) relate \(\Delta\)H\(^\theta\), \(\Delta\)S\(^\theta\) and \(\Delta\)G\(^\theta\) as the driving

forces for chemical reactions;

(vi) solve simple problems based on the

relationships \(\Delta\)G\(^\theta\)= \(\Delta\)H\(^\theta\) -T\(\Delta\)S\(^\theta\)

 

 

Rates of Chemical Reaction

 

(a) Elementary treatment of the following factors which can change the rate of a chemical reaction:

(i) Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCl and Na2S2O3 or Mg and HCl

(ii) Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCl and Na2S2O3, HCl and marble and the iodine clock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressure may be used as concentration term.

(iii) Surface area e.g. the reaction

between marble and HCl with

marble in

(i) powdered form

(ii) lumps of the same mass.

(iv) Catalyst e.g. the decomposition

of H2O2 or KClO3 in the

presence or absence of MnO2

(b) Reaction rate curves.

(c) Activation energy

Qualitative treatment of Arrhenius’ law and

the collision theory, effect of light on some

reactions. e.g. halogenation of alkanes

 

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the factors that affect the rates of a chemical reaction;

(ii) determine the effects of temperature on

the rate of reactions;

(iii) examine the effect of concentration/pressure on

the rate of a chemical reaction;

(iv) describe how the rate of a chemical reaction is

affected by surface area;

(v) determine the types of catalysts suitable for different reactions and their effects;

(vi) determine ways of moderating these effects in chemical reactions.

(vii) interpret reaction rate curves;

(viii) solve simple problems on the rate of reactions;

(ix) relate the rate of reaction to the kinetic theory of matter.

(x) examine the significance of activation energy to chemical reactions.

(xi) deduce the value of activation energy (Ea) from reaction rate curves.

 

 

Chemical equilibra

Reversible reactions and factors governing

the equilibrium position. Dynamic

equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s principle and equilibrium constant. Simple examples to

include action of steam on iron and N2O4 2NO2.

No calculation will be required.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the factors that affects the position

of equilibrium of a chemical reaction;

(ii) predict the effects of each factor on the position

of equilibrium;

(iii) determine the effects of these factors on

equilibrium constant.

 

 

Non-metals and their compounds

(a) Hydrogen: commercial production from

water gas and cracking of petroleum

fractions, laboratory preparation,

properties, uses and test for hydrogen.

(b) Halogens: Chlorine as a representative

element of the halogen. Laboratory preparation, industrial preparation by electrolysis, properties and uses, e.g. water sterilization, bleaching, manufacture of HCl, plastics and insecticides.

Hydrogen chloride and Hydrochloric acid: Preparation and properties. Chlorides and test for chlorides.

(c) Oxygen and Sulphur

(i) Oxygen:

Laboratory preparation, properties and uses. Commercial production from liquid air. Oxides: Acidic,basic, amphoteric and neutral, trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the importance of ozone in the atmosphere.

(ii) Sulphur:

Uses and allotropes:

preparation of allotropes is not expected . Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur(IV) oxide, the reaction of SO2 with alkalis. Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the effect of acids on salts of trioxosulphate(IV), Tetraoxosulphate(VI) acid: Commercial preparation (contact process only), properties as a dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydrating agent and uses. Test for SO42-.

Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and properties as a weak acid, reducing agent and precipitating agent. Test for S2-

(d) Nitrogen:

(i) Laboratory preparation

(ii) Production from liquid air

(iii) Ammonia:

Laboratory and industrial

preparations (Haber Process only),

properties and uses, ammonium salts

and their uses, oxidation of

ammonia to nitrogen (IV)

oxide and trioxonitrate (V)

acid.

Test for NH4+

(iv) Trioxonitrate (V) acid:

Laboratory preparation

from ammonia;

properties and uses. Trioxonitrate (V) salt-

action of heat and uses. Test for NO3-

(v) Oxides of nitrogen:

Properties.

The nitrogen cycle.

(e) Carbon:

(i) Allotropes: Uses and

properties

(ii) Carbon(IV) oxide-

Laboratory preparation, properties

and uses. Action of heat on

trioxocarbonate (IV) salts and test for

CO32-

(iii) Carbon(II) oxide:

Laboratory preparation, properties

including its effect on blood;

sources of carbon (II) oxide to

include charcoal, fire and exhaust

fumes.

(iv) Coal: Different types, products

obtained from destructive

distillation of wood and coal.

(v) Coke: Gasification and uses.

Manufacture of synthetic gas and

uses.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) predict reagents for the laboratory and

industrial preparation of these gases and

their compounds.

(ii) identify the properties of the gases and their

compounds.

(iii) compare the properties of these gases and

their compounds.

(iv) specify the uses of each gas and its

compounds;

(v) determine the specific test for each gas and its

compounds.

(vi) determine specific tests for Cl-, SO42-, SO32-,

S2-, NH4+, NO3-, CO32-, HCO?3

(vii) predict the reagents for preparation,

properties and uses HCl(g) and HCl(aq);

(viii) identify the allotropes of oxygen;

(ix) determine the significance of ozone to

our environment.

(x) classify the oxides of oxygen and their

properties

(xi) identify the allotropes of sulphur and their

uses;

(xii) predict the reagents for preparation, properties

and uses of SO2 and H2S;

(xiii) specify the preparations of H2SO4 and H2SO3,

their properties and uses.

(xiv) specify the laboratory and industrial

preparation of NH3;

(xv) identify the properties and uses of NH3;

(xvi) identify reagents for the laboratory

preparation of HNO3, its properties and

uses;

(xvii) specify the properties of N2O, NO, NO2 gases.

(xviii) examine the relevance of nitrogen cycle

to the environment.

(xix) identify allotropes of carbon;

(xx) predict reagents for the laboratory

preparation of CO2;

(xxi) specify the properties of CO2 and its

uses;

(xxii) determine the reagents for the

laboratory preparation of CO;

(xxiii) predict the effects of CO on human;

(xxiv) identify the different forms of coal:

(xxv) determine their uses;

(xxvi) specify the products of the destructive distillation of wood and coal;

(xxvii) specify the uses of coke and synthetic gas.

 

Metals and their compounds

(a) General properties of metals

(b) Alkali metals e.g. sodium

(i) Sodium hydroxide:-

Production by electrolysis of

brine, its action on aluminium, zinc and lead ions.

Uses including precipitation of

metallic hydroxides.

(ii) Sodium trioxocarbonate (IV)

and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate (IV): Production by Solvay process, properties and uses, e.g.

Na2CO3 in the manufacture of glass.

(iii) Sodium chloride: its occurrence in

sea water and uses, the economic

importance of sea water and the

recovery of sodium chloride.

(c) Alkaline-earth metals, e.g. calcium;

calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide

and calcium trioxocarbonate (IV);

Properties and uses. Preparation of calcium oxide from sea shells, the

chemical composition of cement

and the setting of mortar. Test for Ca2+.

(d) Aluminium

Purification of bauxite, electrolytic

extraction, properties and uses of aluminium and its compounds. Test for A13+

(e) Tin

Extraction from its ores.

Properties and uses.

(f) Metals of the first transition series.

Characteristic properties:

(i) electron configuration

(ii) oxidation states

(iii) complex ion formation

(iv) formation of coloured ions

(v) catalysis

(g) Iron

Extraction from sulphide and oxide

ores, properties and uses, different forms

of iron and their properties and

advantages of steel over iron.

Test for Fe2+ and Fe3+

(h) Copper

Extraction from sulphide and oxide

ores, properties and uses of copper.

Preparation and uses of copper( II )

tetraoxosulphate(VI). Test for Cu2+

(i) Alloy

Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, type- metal, duralumin, soft solder,

permallory and alnico (constituents and

uses only).

Candidates should be able to:

(i) specify the general properties of metals;

(ii) determine the method of extraction suitable

for each metal;

(iii) relate the methods of extraction to the

properties for the metals;

(iv) compare the chemical reactivities of the metals;

(v) specify the uses of the metals;

(vi) determine specific test for metallic ions;

(vii) determine the process for the production

of the compounds of these metals;

(viii) compare the chemical reactivities of the

compounds;

(ix) specify the uses of these compounds;

(x) specify the chemical composition of cement.

(xi) describe the method of purification of bauxite;

(xii) specify the ores of tin;

(xiii) relate the method of extraction to its properties;

(xiv) specify the uses of tin;

(xv) identify the general properties of the first

transition metals;

(xvi) deduce reasons for the specific properties

of the transition metals;

(xvii) determine the IUPAC names of simple

transition metal complexes

(xviii) determine the suitable method of

extraction of iron;

(xix) specify the properties and uses of iron;

(xx) identify the different forms of iron, their compositions, properties and uses.

(xxi) identify the appropriate method of

extraction of copper from its compounds;

(xxii) relate the properties of copper and its

compound to their uses.

(xxiii) specify the method for the preparation of

CuSO4;

(xxiv) specify the constituents and uses of the

various alloys mentioned.

(xxv) compare the properties and uses of alloys

to pure metals.

 

Organic Compound

RECOMMENDED TEXTS

s

 

An introduction to the tetravalency of

carbon, the general formula, IUPAC

nomenclature and the determination of

empirical formula of each class of the

organic compounds mentioned below.

(a) Aliphatic hydrocarbons

(i) Alkanes

Homologous series in relation

to physical properties,

substitution reaction and a few

examples and uses of halogenated

products. Isomerism: structural

only (examples on isomerism should

not go beyond six carbon atoms).

Petroleum: composition, fractional distillation and major products; cracking and reforming, Petrochemicals – starting materials of organic syntheses, quality of petrol and meaning of octane number.

(ii) Alkenes

Isomerism: structural and geometric

isomerism, additional and

polymerization reactions, polythene

and synthetic rubber as examples of

products of polymerization and its use

in vulcanization.

(iii) Alkynes

Ethyne – production from action of

water on carbides, simple reactions and

properties of ethyne.

(b) Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene –

structure, properties and uses.

(c) Alkanols

Primary, secondary, tertiary – production

of ethanol by fermentation and from

petroleum by-products. Local examples

of fermentation and distillation, e.g.

gin from palm wine and other local

sources and glycerol as a polyhydric

alkanol.

Reactions of OH group – oxidation as a distinguishing test among primary, secondary

and tertiary alkanols (Lucas test).

(d) Alkanals and alkanones.

Chemical test to distinguish between

alkanals and alkanones.

(e) Alkanoic acids.

Chemical reactions; neutralization and

esterification, ethanedioic (oxalic) acid

as an example of a dicarboxylic acid

and benzene carboxylic acid as an

example of an aromatic acid.

(f) Alkanoates

Formation from alkanoic acids and

alkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates.

Saponification:

Production of soap and margarine from

alkanoates and distinction between

detergents and soaps.

(g) Amines (Alkanamines) Primary, Secondary,

and tertiary

(h) Carbohydrates

Classification – mono-, di- and polysaccharides; composition, chemical tests for simple sugars and reaction with concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid. Hydrolysis of complex sugars e.g. cellulose from cotton and starch from cassava, the uses of sugar and starch in the production of alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals and textiles.

(i) Proteins:

Primary structures, hydrolysis and tests (Ninhydrin, Biuret, Millon’s and xanthoproteic)

Enzymes and their functions.

(j) Polymers:

Natural and synthetic rubber; addition and condensation polymerization.

– Methods of preparation, examples and uses.

Thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) derive the name of organic compounds from

their general formulae;

(ii) relate the name of a compound to its structure

(iii) relate the tetravalency of carbon to its ability

to form chains of compound (catenation);

(iv) classify compounds according to their

functional groups;

(v) derive empirical formula and molecular

formula, from given data;

(vi) relate structure/functional groups to specific

properties;

(vii) derive various isomeric forms from a given

formula;

(viii) distinguish between the different types of

isomerism;

(ix) classify the various types of hydrocarbons;

(x) distinguish each class of hydrocarbons by their properties;

(xi) specify the uses of various hydrocarbons;

(xii) identify crude oil as a complex mixture

of hydrocarbons;

(xiii) relate the fractions of hydrocarbons to their

properties and uses;

(xiv) relate transformation processes to quality

improvement of the fractions;

 

 

(xv) distinguish between various polymerization

processes;

(xvi) specify the process involved in vulcanization;

(xvii) specify chemical test for terminal alkynes

(xviii) distinguish between aliphatic and aromatic

hydrocarbons;

(xix) relate the properties of benzene to its structure

(xx) compare the various classes of alkanols;

(xxi) determine the processes involved in ethanol

production;

(xxii) examine the importance of ethanol as an

alternative energy provider;

(xxiii) distinguish the various classes of alkanols;

(xxiv) differentiate between alkanals and alkanones;

(xxv) compare the various types of alkanoic acids;

(xxvi) identify natural sources of alkanoates;

(xxvii) specify the methods for the production of

soap, detergent and margarine.

(xxviii) distinguish between detergent and soap;

(xxix) compare the various classes of alkanamine;

(xxx) identify the natural sources of

carbohydrates;

(xxxi) compare the various classes of

carbohydrates;

(xxxii) infer the products of hydrolysis and

dehydration of carbohydrates;

(xxxiii) determine the uses of carbohydrates;

(xxxiv) specify the tests for simple sugars;

(xxxv) identify the basic structure of proteins;

(xxxvi) specify the methods and products of

hydrolysis;

(xxxvii) specify the various tests for proteins;

(xxxviii) distinguish between natural and synthetic

polymers;

(xxxix) differentiate between addition and

condensation polymerization processes;

(xl) classify natural and commercial polymers

and their uses;

(xli) distinguish between thermoplastics and

thermosetting plastics.

 

Chemistry and Industry

 

Chemical industries: Types, raw materials and

relevancies; Biotechnology.

Candidates should be able to :

(i) classify chemical industries interms of products;

(ii) identify raw materials for each industry;

(iii) distinguish between fine and heavy

chemicals;

(iv) enumerate the relevance of each of these

industries;

(v) relate industrial processes to biotechnology.

 

 

RECOMMENDED TEXTS

New School Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, Ababio, O. Y. (2009), (Fourth edition), Onitsha: Africana FIRST Publishers Limited.

 

Senior Secondary Chemistry, Bajah, S.T.; Teibo, B. O., Onwu, G.; and Obikwere, A. Book 1 (1999), Books 2 and 3 (2000). Lagos: Longman.

 

Understanding Chemistry for Schools and Colleges, Ojokuku, G. O. (2012, Revised Edition), Zaria: Press-On Chemresources.

 

Essential: Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, (2008), 2nd Edition, I. A. Odesina, Lagos: Tonad Publishers Limited.

 

Countdown to WASSCE/SSCE, NECO, JME Chemistry, Uche, I. O.; Adenuga, I. J. and Iwuagwu, S. L. (2003). Ibadan: Evans.


 

 Hit Share if you think this Information was Helpful.

 

To get updates, leave a comment below and include your email..

 

 
   

Entertainment ~ Education ~ Mobile Tech ~ Gospel Music ~ Android Games


 

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

two + sixteen =