At this time, something like a thousand kinds of animals (vertebrate animals) can be said to be in danger of extinction. A few of them have been reduced to this precarious position by extensive killing but the majority are disappearing only as fast as the particular kind of untry they need for existence is itself disappearing: and all this at the hands of man, as often as not by mistake.
There are three species of turtles whose future survival is menaced by the demand for turtle soup, which would hardly justify the extermination of a giant reptile whose family has existed for 200 million years. Leopards are in jeopardy because of the fashion for their skins. As they get rarer, the prices rise and, as leopard skin coats become more expensive, the demand increases. No species can long survive the price of N60,000 which a half-grown baby leopard now carries on its skin. And crocodiles, the longest surviving reptiles, are now dwindling alarmingly as a result of the fashion in crocodile skin for ladies’ handbags and men’s shoes.
The human population explosion spreads mankind across the land surfaces of the earth at an alarming rate. There will be twice as many of us before most of us are dead. Does this mean no room for wild animals? Of course not. With ingenuity and forethought, a place can be kept for them. To destroy their habitat is as unnecessary as it would be to pull down a great cathedral in order to grow potatoes on the site. A campaign to save what remains is the concern of a new kind of Noah’s Ark – the World Wildlife Fund. It does not believe that all is lost. 1. The basic causes of the elimination of certain animals from the earth include A. man’s decision to live in cities and the development of large farmlands B. extensive killing of animals and the fast disappearance of their favourable habitats C. man’s penchant for meat and the sale of animals for meat and hides D. a deliberate battle against Nature and the quest for leopard skin. 2. From the passage, the attitude of the writer can be described as. 3. The expression when man evolved a conscience means when A. man developed an awareness of right and wrong B. man’s intellect improved tremendously C. man acquired new habits D. man became a critical creature. 4. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? A. Man kills animals only when he can afford to do so. B. Man cannot spare those animals that eat his kind. C. Man eats all categories of animals. D. Man poses the greatest threat to Nature. 5. The sentence there will be twice as many of us before most of us are dead means A. some increase in human and animal population growth rates B. mankind is fast spreading across the earth C. many of us will die as a result of population explosion D. the population growth rate will double before our death. The 2002 World Cup Competition, also called Korea/Japan 2002, kicked off with a match between the defending champions, France, and the Senegalese national team from Africa. Nobody had given the Senegalese any chance against the star-studded defending champions but the 1-0 scoreline in favour of Senegal showed that African football can no longer be taken for granted. This shocking defeat of France had raised Africa’s hopes of going beyond the first round of the tournament. So when the Super Eagles of Nigeria filed out against Argentina on the morning of Sunday, June the second, 2002, many Nigerian football enthusiasts delayed attending church service to watch the match live on television. As expected, the Super Eagles put up strong resistance to the Argentinian challenge and the day would not have ended on a somber note for Nigerians if the momentum had been sustained throughout the match. The hope of going beyond the first round, though precarious, was very much alive as the Eagles were expected to defeat their next opponents, Sweden and England. But some shortcomings in the Nigerian national team needed to be rectified to brighten their chances against their next opponents. First, the defence needed to be strengthened to prevent the opponents from incessantly terrorizing the goalkeeper. Then the strikers also needed to improve on their lackluster performance against Argentina, since every Nigerian expected them to overwhelm their next opponents in the opening rounds. Lastly, rather than gamble with unfit players, a more creative use of the reserves would be necessary to smooth the way to the next round. If World Cup debutants, Senegal ,could nurse the hope of playing in the knock-out stages of the tournament, then the Eagles should soar instead of being intimidated by big names, for no team is invincible. 6. Which of the following captures the writer’s suggestion on how the Eagles could improve their performance in subsequent matches? A. Better goalkeeping, a better attack and a stronger midfield. B. Replacement of injured players, stronger attackers and a rugged defence. C. Good coaching, more strikers and more defenders. D. Fair officiating, good goalkeeping and fast players. 7. A suitable title for this passage is A. African Teams in the 2002 World Cup B. The FIFA Korea/Japan 2002 C. The Nigerian and the Senegalese Teams D. The Eagles in World Cup 2002. 8. From the argument in the last paragraph, it can be concluded that the Eagles were A. more experienced than the Senegalese team B. not as strong as the Senegalese team. C. more timid and goal-shy than their opponents D. not sure of getting to the next round of the tournament. 9. The word debutants, as used in the passage, means 10. From the passage, it can be concluded that the writer A. was optimistic about the chances of the Eagles B. did not fancy the Eagles’ chances C. was non-committal about the chances of the Eagles
D. was certain about the Eagles’ chances.
Attitudes towards the smoking of cigarettes and the consumption of alcohol may be used to illustrate typical African ethics. Apart from the fact that smoking has now been linked with lung cancer disease, the African moralist has always regarded smoking as an indication of moral degradation.
A number of people have accepted the moralist idea on smoking. Some have refrained from smoking, and those who could influence others, such as parents and religious leaders, have also exerted their influence to prevent others from smoking. On the other hand, a good many people have remained indifferent to the moralist view and have continued to smoke. The same argument has been applied to the consumption of alcohol. The African moralist, basing his judgement on the behaviour of a few alcoholics, tends to regard the habit of taking alcohol as a sign of wretchedness. The moralist holds the view that anybody who forms the habit of consuming alcohol will never do well in live. While this may be true in respect of a few people in the society, the fear of the moralist has not been justified. However, the economics is primarily interested in the habit of smoking and the consumption of alcohol in so far as they give satisfaction to smokers and drinkers and so generate supply of and demand for tobacco and alcohol. The economist is interested in knowing how many packets of cigarettes are consumed and to what extent an increase or fall in consumption could affect production that is, supply. Similarly, he is interested in how much beer is consumed and how the supply of beer will adjust to the demand for it. He examines the habits and the pressures which can lead to the readjustment of wants and the reallocation of resources to cover the wants. Some moral principles associated with religion tend to lead on to economic problems. Followers of certain religions are expected not to consume pork, take alcohol or smoke tobacco. Devotees of some religious groups, on the other hand, can eat pork while others are expected to abstain from alcohol and smoking. Strict observance of these moral rules could cripple the breweries, the cigarette factories and some businesses. However, there seems to be a growing number of alcohol consumers and cigarette smokers – a development which should be of interest to the economist. 11. The positions maintained by the moralist and the economist can be described as being 12. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? A. People who drink or smoke surely die of cancer. B. Everyone ignores the moralist view on drinking and smoking. C. Smoking and drinking may have positive effects on the economy. D. Total abstinence from drinking and smoking is a religious obligation. 13. It can be concluded from the passage that morality, religion and economy are A. clearly interconnected C. somewhat interconnected 14. The view expressed by the writer in the last paragraph is that A. the number of alcoholics and smokers is certainly increasing B. more people now abstain from drinking and smoking C. more people appear to take to drinking and smoking D. sales of alcohol and tobacco products have improved tremendously. 15. According to the passage, the moralist idea is that A. it is typically African not to smoke cigarettes B. people should accept a point of view only when they are convinced C. smoking is not good but a little alcohol may be permitted
D. the smoking of cigarettes is bad and unacceptable.
The passage below has gaps numbered 16 to 25. Immediately following each gap, four options are provided. Choose the most appropriate option for each gap.
A prepared speech is not easy to deliver, especially if it is not written by the presenter. A …16…(A. document B. free C. manuscript D. quantum) delivery is one in which the speech has been written out word for word and is read to …17…(A. a gathering B. a conference C. a congregation D. an audience). This kind of delivery is usually reserved for very …18… (A. formal B. genuine C. impromptu D. guaranteed) occasions when exact wording is …19…(A. conclusive B. critical C. reportive D. speculative), such as the State of the Union Address or speeches before the United Nations General …20…(A. Negotiation B. Organization C. Assembly D. Audience). The primary advantage is that the speech may be highly …21…(A.polished B. advanced C. analogous D. discreet) in terms of word choice, turns of phrase, and development of ideas. The main disadvantage is that this type of delivery is difficult to do well. Reading aloud with meaningful …22…(A. anticipatory B.profuse C. bifocal D. vocal) inflection requires the speaker to be very familiar with the text. If not, the words will come out in a choppy, expressionless way. Such poor delivery could destroy any …23… (A. interactive B. restrictive C. positive D. decisive) effects created by the carefully chosen …24… (A. language B.slang C. dialect D. rhetoric) Lack of familiarity with the …25… (A. exchange B. text C. note D. context) could also prevent the speaker from maintaining eye contact with people being addressed.
LEXIS, STRUCTURE AND ORAL FORMS In each of questions 26 to 30, select the option that best explains the information conveyed in the sentence. Each question carries. 26. In spite of his humble beginning, Audu now throws his weight around. A. Audu is arrogant despite his simple upbringing. B. Despite his obvious poverty, Audu is a proudman. C. His noble birth notwithstanding, Audu is a corrupt man. D. From his poor background, Audu is now a rich man. 27. Ngozi has always considered her father to be an impassioned man. A. Her father is a very lively man. B. Her father is an emotional man. C. Her father is a disciplined man. D. Her father is a very strict man. 28. The elders rebuked Olu for taking issue with his principal. A. Olu was cautioned for shouting at his principal. B. Olu was scolded for acting in collusion with his principal. C. Olu was reprimanded for arguing with his principal. D. Olu was blamed for issuing a statement denying his principal. 29. The manager paid us in hard currency. A. We were paid in new notes. B. We were paid in foreign currency. C. We were paid in dollars and pound sterling. D. We were paid in a strong and stable currency. 30. If he went to London, he would see the Queen. A. When he goes to London, he will see the Queen. B. He did not go to London and did not see the Queen. C. He did not see the Queen when he went to London. D. He would like to see the Queen when he goes to London. (Questions 31 to 100 carry 1 mark each.) In each of questions 31 to 45, choose the option opposite in meaning to the word(s) or phrase in italics. 31. Only those who are gullible fall victim to his trickery. A. saucy B. devastated C. courteous D. astute 32. He is well known for his inordinate ambition. A. excessive B. passionate C. moderate D. sound 33. Students could be timid. A. friendly B. bold C. covetous D. pugnacious 34. The witness decided to conceal the evidence. A. divulge B. hide C. destroy D. pugnacious 35. The members of the congregation were inspired by the sermon. A. bewitched B. enthralled C. disenchanted D. disorientated 36. Agbenu was ecstatic about her result. A. dispassionate B. sad C. pessimistic D. mad 37. The labour leader’s recalcitrant stance was applauded. A. stubborn B. flexible C. uncompromising D. well-informed 38. A cool bath in a hot weather can be truly invigorating. A. devastating B. unpalatable C. debilitating D. disgusting 39. I am loath to do the assignment. A. willing B. unwilling C. waiting D. dying 40. Toyin is married to an impatient, self-centered man. A. a fretful B. a tolerant C. an edgy D. a tolerable 41. Gregarious animals can be found in the zoo. A. Various B. Wild C. Lonely D. Tame 42. The doctor examined the patient painstakingly. A. perfunctorily B. professionally C. painfully D. carefully 43. The company has continued to monopolize the distribution of the products. A. centralize B. specialize C. liberalize D. regularize 44. A conservative estimate put the number of missing persons at forty. A. A rough B. An accurate C. A primitive D. An incorrect 45. The agency has sworn to deal with all the apostles of confederation. A. proponents B. protagonists C. apostates D. opponents. In each of questions 46 to 60, choose the option nearest in meaning to word(s) or phrase in italics. 46. The leader has the unstinting support of his party. A. unsparing B. laudable C. uninspiring D. cautious. 47. The party supporters vilified the Chairman for the role he played in the crisis that rocked the party. A. elected. B. challenged C. condemned D. impeached 48. The company is to shed three thousand staff this year. A. demote B. lay off C. throw up D. placate 49. There was a glut of oil on the market. A. a variety of B. an accumulation of C. an abundance of D. an increase in 50. A few years ago, nobody would have believed that the economy would turn around. A. deteriorate B. improve C. stagnate D. change 51. Before announcing his retirement, Ochima resolved to settle on account with the bank. A. pay back all he owes B. close his account with C. retire his loans from D. get back at 52. The boys knew that a storm was imminent. A. possible B. impending C. threatening D. encroaching 53. The nurse was in favour of voluntary euthanasia. A. a painless death B. a simple operation C. a sleeping pill D. a major operation 54. The cynics feared that the nation’s nascent democracy would fail. A. pessimists B. delinquents C. critics D. illusionists 55. The essence of governance is to seek the good and well-being of the majority of the people. A. importance B. goal C. characteristic D. secret 56. From what she said, one may infer that she does not like the course. A. suppose B. realize C. deduce D. agree 57. He shared his room with a person whose behavior was quite nauseating. A. disrespectful B. disgraceful C. discouraging D. disgusting 58. The carpenter built a commodious wardrobe. A. gigantic B. small C. spacious D. wide 59. Publishing as a business venture has become a hot potato in Nigeria. A. unpleasant B. profitable C. unacceptable D. expensive 60. The man’s story sounded plausible to his audience. A. fantastic B. credulous C. credible D. entertaining In each of questions 61 to 85, fill each gap with the most appropriate option from the list provided. 61. ‘I can’t stand people prying into my private life’, Ladi said. ‘…,’ (A. Me neither B. Me too C. I also D. Likewise myself) agreed Agbenu. 62. The sergeant spoke to me in a … (A. coerce B. coarse C. course D. causal) manner. 63. The reason why he was not offered admission was …(A. because B. that C. when D. owning to) his results could not be found. 64. Adika… (A. receive B. receives C. has received D. had received) a message from the club regularly. 65. Three quarters of the people in the village … killed but only half of their huts … ( A. were/was B. were/were C. was/was) affected. 66. If you saw the photograph of the man, … (A. can B. will C. would D. could) you be able to identify him? 67. It is bad to take… (A. someone else’s B. someone’s else C. someone’s else’s D. someone elses’) property without permission. 68. As Obande does not know anyone in this city, he hopes that some kind… (A. men B. individuals C. man D. inhabitants) will put him up for the night. 69. Be careful not to… (A lose B. loose C. loss D. lost) this money. 70. How is the new editor… (A. pushing B. going C. getting D. moving) on with his work? 71. Nowadays, many graduates are not well disposed to teaching,… (A. do they? B. they are? C. aren’t they? D. are they?) 72. The armed robbers went into the house and robbed the three… (A. women’s occupants B. women occupants C. woman occupants D. woman’s occupants). 73. It is often… that inflation… (A. say/resulted B. said/result C. said/results D. say/result) from too much money chasing very few goods. 74. If you would do me this favour, I … (A. will B. shall C. would D. should) be very grateful. 75. I have the … (A. privilege B. priviledge C. privilege D. privilege) of meeting the President. 76. My classmate,… (A. that B. whose C. whom D. which) I haven’t seen for years, wrote to me last week. 77. Four weeks… (A. has been B. are C. were D. is) enough for the police to conclude their investigation. 78. The woman is one of the … (A. elitists B. elites C. elite D. elitist) of the society. 79. The doctor asked the patient what … (A. is the problem B. the problem was C. the problem is D. is your problem). 80. He put… (A. a white dozen eggs B. dozen white eggs C. a dozen white eggs D. white dozen eggs) in a basket. 81. Idakwo ran… (A. lest he almost B. lest he will C. lest he should. D. lest he may) miss the train. 82. Course … (A. material B. materials C. material’s D. materials’) writers are to reflect local colour. 83. It was a free-for-all and the students were blamed for taking the law… (A. into their hands B. in their hands C. into their own hands D. in their own hands). 84. Ali plays… (A. their B. some C. a D. the) violin with remarkable skill. 85. The candidate’s charisma should be a…(A. determinable B. determining C. determinant D. determinate) factor in winning the election. In each of questions 86 to 88, choose the option that has the same vowel sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined. A. gaol B. colony C. golden D. girl A. jeopardy B. turned C. earned D. caned A. get B. mortgage C. enter D. bachelor In each of questions 89 to 91, choose the option that has a different vowel sound from the others. 89. A dear B. fair C. bear D. there 90. A. hope B. cost C. coast D. won’t 91. A. naught B. north C. spot D. law In each of questions 92 to 94, choose the option that has the same consonant sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined. A. attend B. anxious C. concern D. consider A. college B. chemical C. chairman D. champagne A. though B. taught C. thought D. tank In each of questions 95 and 96, choose the option that has a different consonant sound from the others. 95. A. shoe B. ocean C. chef D. chief 96. A. laugh B. off C. wife D. of In each of questions 97 and 98, choose the option that has the same stress pattern as the given word. A. employ (noun) B. interest C. perfect (adjective) D. include A. rebel (verb) B. superb C. refuse (noun) D. propose In each of questions 99 and 100, the word in capital letters has the emphatic stress. Choose the option to which the sentence relates. 99. My MOTHER served rice and fresh fish stew for dinner. A. What of kind of meal did your mother serve for dinner? B. Did your mother serve rice and fresh fish stew for lunch? C. What kind of stew did your mother serve for dinner? D. Who served rice and fresh fish stew for dinner? 100. The President SPOKE to the press.
A. Who spoke to the press? B. to? C. Did the President speak to the press? D. Did the President write to the press?